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  • amartya sen'in ufuğu açıp uzay boşluğuna fırlatan kitabı.
    meraktan çatlayanlar, yerinde duramayanlar, ekonomi uğruna sirtaki yapanlar için; şöyle minicik ufacık bir değerlendirme yapıp türkiye'deki istatistiklere göz gezdirerek zeytinyağı ve nar ekşisiyle süslemiş idim, tüm hakları zagor tenay'a ait olup darkwood mahalle muhtarlığına ithaf edilmiştir:

    amartya sen was born on november 3, 1933. (santiniketan, ındia) he received nobel price in economic sciences in 1998 for contributions to welfare economics. he is known as “the mother teresa of economics” for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare economics, the underlying mechanisms of poverty, gender inequality, famines, democracy and political liberalism. he is now the proffesor of thomas w. lamont university and professor of economics and philosophy at harvard university.

    ''the broadening of my studies into philosophy was important for me not just because some of my main areas of interest in economics relate quite closely to philosophical disciplines (for example, social choice theory makes intense use of mathematical logic and also draws on moral philosophy, and so does the study of inequality and deprivation), but also because ı found philosophical studies very rewarding on their own.'' -sen

    * ıf i wrote a comprehensive review of development as freedom, i would have to rewrite all the book. so i will give summary on main topics and then move on to the examples in turkey therefore it can be understood by seeing where we are. *

    growth of gdp is of course very important for the society's freedom. but it's not enough. there is some issues that we should not ignore: education, health, political&civil rights, social modernization. these factors play a remarkable role to expand human freedom. and now we will see them from amartya sen's eye.

    freedom

    there is not direct proportion for income per capita and freedom of individuals to live long and well. an individual lives in a poor country may live better than a rich one.

    economic unfreedom can breed social unfreedom and social&political unfreedom can also faster economic unfreedom. so we can count freedom types as supplementaries and reinforces. they can go different directions too, of course.

    there are five types of freedom:

    1- political freedom [voting, having political expression]

    2- economic facilities

    3- social opportunities [health, education]

    4- transparency quarantees [quarantee of clearity to prevent corruption, underhand dealings etc...]

    5- protective security [a social safety net]

    according to sen, there is two types of development process. the first one is the fierce process with much ''blood, sweat and tears'' using the ''luxury of democracy'' leaving out main concerns. the other process is; expanding the real freedom that people enjoy. expansion of freedom is a primary and also the principal means of development. ınstrumental role of freedom in development. even a rich person can be lack in speaking freely, participating decisions or living in her tradition. so in the process of the development it has to be included the removal of this deprivation.

    the state and the society have a great roles in enpower and safe human freedom.

    capability deprivation

    relationship between income&capability depends on age, gender, social roles, location, health. ın the disadvantage age or illness situation the ability to earn income is hard and even she/he did, it's harder to cenvert income to capability. and income distribution within family can cause deprivation, too. for example: girls might be neglected in many countries like asia or north africa.

    `economists criticizes for concentrating too much on efficiency and too little on equity`. when the politicals focus on income poverty and income inequality, they neglect some variables such as unemployment, health, lack of education and social exclusion. there is a doctrine belongs harry frankfurt called ''economic egalitarianism'' says that there should be no inequalities in the distribution of money.

    by the way, the distinction between income inequality and economic inequality is important to define. raising the income to a person has more needs can be against to income equality whereas it's not a problem for economic equality.

    government should intervene inequalities such as labor bondage, child labor, freedom of woman to employ...

    democracy

    ın this subject, sen begins with a hitting question: what should come first: removing poverty and misery or quaranteeing political liberty&civil rights? ıf a political freedom is one hand and economic need in the other hand, people of course choose the second one. because it's such an issue that is not what people choose but what they have reason to choose.

    while some authoritarianism is going well for economic growth [china, singapore] , democracy is working, too [the fastest growing african countries]

    ın brief, democracy shows us how fredooms are actually exercised.

    food&population

    we already know population theory of malthus; sen shows us there is no reason to fear about food production because of increasing population. because from his time to nowadays food production is increasing as the population grows as well.

    and what can we do about population growth? there is a government intervention with a family planning to prevent increasing population too much in china. ıs it a good solution?

    sen says that there is no need for intervention for that because the fertility rates will fall down with economic and social development. as long as women get involved to work outside and strengthen, fertility rate will decrease by itself. coercion may

    works faster but it hurts freedom of people have to obey family planning with one child.

    last, a striking commentary about population is from condorcet which i see fit to write down: ''people should know that if they have a duty towards those who are not yet born that duty is not to give them existence but to give them happiness.''

    famines

    for preventing famines, equal sharing of food is enough. people have two choices for food: grow their food themselves or buy it from the market. even there is enough food for everyone, they can be force into starvation because of having no money to get. ıf the supply of food falls sharply, everyone can get food and prevent starvation if the sharing is equal. famines has other damages, too: when famine comes out some occupations get worse because of the falling relative prices.

    famines survive by divide-and-rule, some peasants may suffer when output declines even there is no general poverty in the country. public policy can do three things to prevent famine: state support in creating income&employment, operation of private markets for food&labor, reliance on normal commerce&business.

    women agency

    sen mentioned about: well-being, inequalities, unequal treatment, social justice, excess mortality, gender bias in the distribution of health care, earning power, literacy&education, property rights about women.

    women agency with education&employment influence the nature of public discussion on social subjects and control fertility rates. when women are free to work outside, her contribution to home increases [or we can say: more visible] , become less dependent on others, affects the female children with being a model, reduce the women's deprivation.

    freedom in one area foster the freedom in others. women's education&literacy reduce the mortality rates of children and reduce the fertility rates so world's population problem can be controlled as i mentioned before.

    human rights

    when the subject is human rights: three skepticism show up. first, people are not born with clothes as they are not born with clothes so rights has to be legislated. sometimes rights are not applied. for example: 'moral right of a wife' is acknowledged by many but noone want this requirement to be legislated and enforce by the police and it's the same for 'right to respect' too. sen called that: the legitimacy critique.

    second, if there is a right of someone to do something this must be complete with an agency has duty to provide that. ıf the right does not have practicability then it's nothing than ''lumps in the throat''. sen called that: the coherence critique. last and the third one is: the moral authority of human rights depends on nature of ethics. but ethics are not universal. some cultures can regard rights. [ for example: in confucian cultures, they tend to focus on dicipline rather than rights. ] and the people works for government can be consequential in governing the state- this will influences negatively the rights, of course. sen called that: the cultural critique.

    -ın an annual report of 2011, eurepean court of human rights reported that turkey is the worst violator in europe by %43.

    -from 1959 to 2011 over forty percent of cases touching on freedom of expression came from turkey.

    -turkey’s hdı value for 2012 is 0.722 which is below the average hdı value of eu member states which is 0.864. turkey is also the lowest-ranking country among oecd (organisation for economic co-operation and development) countries with the average hdı of 0.881. but, when the value is discounted for inequality, hdı falls to 0.56, a loss of %22.5 due to inequality in the distribution of the dimension indices.

    -economic freedom reduces inequality by increasing the share of market income going to the poor and lowering the share going to the rich. and what about economic freedom in turkey: (achieved its higher score in economic freedom ındex 2014).

    -ın turkey, %6.6 of the population lives in poverty ( by the mpı( multidimensional poverty index) ‘head count’) while %7.3 were vulnerable to deprivations. the intensity of deprivation (the average percentage of deprivation experienced by people living in multidimensional poverty ) in turkey is %42.

    -the world economic forum ranked turkey 124 out of 135 countries surveyed in its 2012 global gender gap ındex. only about a third of working-age women participate in the labor force, the lowest rate in europe. and of course there is a inrefutable truth about that the worst gender gap is in the islamic countries.

    **as a conclusion; turkey can't shake off its destiny of being in the middle of west and east in the context of development, too. turkey has a long way to acquire a development as freedom and reach to the level of modern civilisation. the process of improvement may be faster if the statesmen read development as freedom. because there is no way to not agree with sen when his book with powerful expressions is ready to influence.
  • "özgürlükler sadece kalkınmanın asli amaçları değildir, aynı zamanda onun başlıca araçları arasında yer alır. özgürlüğün değerlendirici önemini temel almanın yanı sıra, farklı özgürlük türlerini birbirine bağlayan olağanüstü ampirik bağlantıyı da anlamak zorundayız.
    siyasal özgürlükler (ifade ve seçme özgürlüğü biçiminde) iktisadi güvenliği geliştirmeye yardımcı olur. toplumsal fırsatlar (eğitim ve sağlık imkânları biçiminde) iktisadi katılımı kolaylaştırır. iktisadi imkânlar (ticaret ve üretime katılma fırsatları biçiminde) kişisel refahın yanı sıra, toplumsal imkânlar için kamusal kaynakların oluşmasına yardımcı olabilir. farklı türden özgürlükler birbirini güçlendirebilir.
    yeterli toplumsal fırsatlara sahip olan bireyler kendi kaderlerini etkin biçimde oluşturabilirler ve yardımlaşabilirler."**
  • "demokrasinin işlemesi ve siyasal hakların varlığı, kıtlıkların ve diğer iktisadi bunalımların önlenmesine de yardımcı olabilir. kıtlığın (ya da diğer iktisadi bunalımların) acısını kendi yaşamında hiç ya da nadiren çekmiş otoriter yöneticiler, önleyici tedbirleri zamanında alma dürtüsünden yoksun olma eğilimindedir. demokratik hükümetler ise, tam aksine, seçimleri kazanmak ve halkın eleştirileriyle yüzleşmek zorundadır ve gerek kıtlıkları gerekse diğer bunalımları önleyecek tedbirleri almalarına yol açan güçlü dürtülere sahiptir.
    dünya tarihinde, ister iktisadi bakımdan zengin (çağdaş batı avrupa ya da kuzey amerika gibi), ister görece yoksul (bağımsızlık sonrası hindistan, bostvana ya da zimbabve gibi) olsun işleyen bir demokraside asla kıtlık yaşanmaması şaşırtıcı değildir. kıtlıklar genellikle, yabancıların yönettiği sömürge bölgelerinde (ingiliz hindistanı ya ek müsadereci ingilizlerin. yönettiği bir irlanda gibi) ya da tek parti devletlerinde (1930’larda ukrayna’da, 1958-1961'de çin’de ya da 1970’lerde kamboçya’daki gibi) ya da askeri diktatörlüklerde (yakın geçmişte etyopya, somali ya da bazı sahel ülkelerinde) görülmüştür. aslında, bu kitap baskıya verilirken, dünya “kıtlık ligi”nde birinci geldiği görülen iki ülke, her ikisi de diktatörlük yönetimlerinin ünlü örnekleri olan kuzey kore ve sudan'dır.. aslında çok daha geniş bir etki alanına sahip olan demokratik çoğulculuğun avantajları, kıtlığın önlenmesi konusunda kendisini son derece güçlü bir şekilde ve büyük bir açıklıkla göstermektedir."**